HOW TO START PIG FARMING BUSINESS IN NIGERIA (COMPLETE GUIDE) – ZIGIHOW.COM.NG
If you’re on this page, then it means you’re seeking for an article that has a complete guide on how to start a pig farming business in Nigeria. Definitely you’ve found one.
I know there are so many articles online on how to start pig farming business, but this very article will cover all the aspects relating to pig farming business.
In Nigeria pork meat is one of the most consumed meat, not even only in Nigeria but globally. This has dramatically increased the demand for pork meat.
Irrespective of the high demand of pork meat in Nigeria. Nigeria produces less than 5% of the world’s pork. Due to the fact that a big part of Nigerian population is Muslim,(they don’t eat pork). Because the Quran declared pork meat haram, which means forbidden.
This has made pork production in the country not as huge as it could have been. Which is why it is a great spot to fill, as you will not have that much competition.
Starting up a pig farming business in Nigeria will definitely yeild you lots of returns, infact you’ll will make x4 of you of your starting capital. This is because pigs has a very high rate of reproduction. A single female pig (sow) can give birth to 7-13 piglets at a time. Which Will multiply the number of pigs in your farm which is good for business.
Pork meat sells very fast in Nigeria, due to it’s high demand. Most of the times, buyers book your piglets in advance, before they even mature.
Before we deep into pig farming business in Nigeria, let’s take a look at types of pig breeds to rear.
Types Of Pig Breeds
Before starting up your pig farming business, we thought you should know types of pig breeds.
1. American Yorkshire Pigs
American Yorkshire pigs are originally from England, but were developed further in the United States. Yorkshire is muscular with a high proportion of lean meat. Yorkshire data records have been maintained with great diligence, including growth.
They are particularly known for meat (pork) Production, and their mothering ability.
2 Berkshire Pigs
Berkshires are known for their very tasty, darker meat. They are a popular niche breed for small farmers. They are one of the oldest breeds ever known. Berkshires are hardy, active foragers, and reach around 600 pounds at maturity. Personality-wise, they are curious, friendly, and have a very good disposition.
The ears are fairly large and are erect or slightly leaned forward. Berkshire pigs have fine wrinkle-free necks and well-sloped shoulder blades. They have short, straight legs and a straight underline belly.
3. The Tamworth Pig
Tamworth breeds are among the oldest of pig breeds, but its population is considered rare. The Tamworth Pig is of ginger to red colouration and is thought to have descended from wild boars, via native pig stock of Europe.
The Tamworth Pigs are a medium sized pig, with a full grown boar ranging from 250 to 370 kilograms and the mature sow from 200 to 300 kilograms. The adult length ranges from 1.0 to 1.4 metres and heights of about 50 to 65 centimetres are common
4. Gloucestershire Old Spots Pigs
The Gloucestershire Old Spot pig is an English breed of pig which is predominantly white with black spots. It is named after the county of Gloucestershire.
Gloucestershire Old Spots, also called GOS, are from England, and historically used to clean up orchards. There are very few of them in the United States and you may have to get on a wait list for them. GOS’s are lighter skinned and may require lots of shade in warmer, sunnier climates. GOS’s reach market weight in about seven months.
5. Hampshire Pigs
This are one of the oldest breeds in America and still in existence. Hampshires have a white belt around the front of their body, including their front legs. These are excellent foraging pigs, very hardy and produce excellent quality meat. Hampshires are suitable to be a good pig for beginners.
6. The Bentheim Black Pied pig
This breeds is also known as the Buntes Bentheimer Schwein. It is a rare breed of domestic pig in Germany. The Bentheim Black Pied pig originated in Bentheim, Germany in the early 20th century when local breeds were crossed with Berkshire pigs and Cornwalls pigs
7. The American Landrace pig
The American Landrace pigs are a medium to large breed of domestic pig. It is white in colour and has a long body. This breed is covered in fine hair. American Landrace pigs have long snouts and their ears droop and slant forward with its top edges nearly parallel to the bridge of a straight nose.
8. The Danish Landrace pig
The Danish Landrace pigs are a medium to large breeds of pig, whitish in colour with long bodies, fine hair, long snouts and drooping ears. The Danish Landrace pigs are bred for pork production. Production and quality testing have become a regular part of the Danish swine improvement program.
9. The Duroc pig
The duroc pig is an older breed of American domestic pig that forms the basis for many mixed-breed commercial hogs. Duroc pigs are red, large-framed, medium length and muscular, with partially drooping ears.
Pig Breeds In Nigeria
Several popular breeds in Nigeria are: local breeds of white, brown, and black color, and also foreign breeds such as: Hampshire, American Yorkshire, Berkshire pig, Landrace, Tamworth pig, and Duroc.
Why Is Pig Farming Business So Lucrative?
Pigs have a very short reproductive period and high rate of reproduction to compare with goats and cattles. A sow (female pig) gives birth to approximately 7-13piglets two times per year. Which will add more numbers to the herds
Pigs can convert more energy/nutrient into protein and as a result of that they grow faster than cattles, goats or other livestock animals.
Pigs are not particular about food, so you will be able to reduce your expenses. Pigs can survive and produce more by consuming little amount of low quality foods. You can feed them roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste etc
The climate of Nigeria is appropriate and very suitable for pig farming.
Starting Up Pig Farming Business In Nigeria.
Setting Up a Location.
Before starting up pig farming business in Nigeria, the first thing you need to do is to set up a suitable location for your pigs. In as much as you want to economize costs we I strongly advise not to rear bigs at your backyard. Pigs are very stinky and messy animals.
Rearing pigs at your backyard can cause a very offensive odour which can cause pollution, although if a pig pen is always kept clean the odour will be minimized and controlled, but nevertheless don’t rear pigs at your backyard, else you may be inconveniencing your neighbors.
Choose a suitable location for your pigs. A farm land will do just fine. The higher number of pigs you have the more land you purchase.
After purchasing the farmland for your pigs, you can now go ahead to construct a pig house where your pigs will dwell. A pig house is called pigpen.
Your pigs definitely needs a house that will protect your them from bad weather, all kinds of predators and various diseases, as well as keep them all in one place. Recommended materials for a pigpen are concrete or iron, depending on your preference and budget.
When constructing your pen, ensure to build a good drainage system. Otherwise, the whole thing will smell absolutely terrible. It should be cleaned regularly to avoid excessive stink and contamination. Think also about the water system for the pigs. Also ensure to make available a water pool, which should be cleaned often, as the pigs likes to swim in it too.
Pigs hates bad weather conditions, they are very sensitive to heat and they may become sick and die due to excessive heat or cold temperature. Controlled and moderate temperature can help to maximize the growth and production from pig farming business.
When constructing your pigpen (pig house) ensure to make it spacious. Pigs loves space. Make proper and sufficient ventilation systems in the house. Ensure sufficient flow of fresh air and light inside the house. Make a proper drainage inside the house to keep the house dry. Good sanitation system inside the house is very important for pig farming.
There are various types of pigpen suitable for your pigs. They are:
A breeding pen
This is where your mature pigs will mate. It should not be too large; there should be just enough space for a male and a female pig to coexist and copulate.
A farrowing pen.
This is where your sows will give birth and nurse their piglets. Make sure it is extra comfortable for both the mother and her babies. You can make nice dry beddings for your pigs. Pigs generally like dry bed, to keep them warm when the weather temperature is cold.
A weaner pen.
This is where young piglets spend the first two months of their lives. In this pen, they first try eating solid food, as they were only exposed to their mother’s milk.
A grower pen
This is where the adolescent pigs (2-9 months old) live their lives. Try to make this space as big as possible, so that your pigs have room to grow and be comfortable. Do not, we repeat, do not cut cost on this pen. It is very important that the pigs are as comfortable as possible while they are growing up.
A finisher pen.
This is where your mature pigs wait to be taken to slaughter for pork production.
Purchase Healthy Piglets
After setting up a location and housing construction. It’s time to purchase healthy piglets to start up the business. Remember you shall reap what you sow. A healthy piglets determines a successful business.
What do I mean by this? To ensure a successful pig farming business in Nigeria you have to purchase healthy piglets.
For the very beginning, it is advisable to buy a small amount of piglets, to understand if you can cope with them, and then gradually increase the amount, so you will have minimal risk.
You should buy both male and female pigs. Depending on how big you want to start, you can buy from just two pigs to 20-30 pigs
Things to looks out before purchasing your Piglets.
In purchasing piglets for your business, there are some certain signs which are very important you should consider to ensure you purchase healthy piglets.
Before you purchase your piglets, look out for these signs
- Glossy coat;
- Good temperament (You should be aware of aggressive pig)
- Having good appetite
- Bright eyes
- Without claudication
- Buy only from trusted sources and and ensure they are vaccinated.
Ensure to provide your pigs with fresh, high quality and nutrient-rich food to keep your pigs healthy and growing fast. Pigs are not choosy about food, they can eat kitchen trash, forage, stalk, and agricultural residues.
Ensure to feed your pig with food rich is protein and fats too, to ensure good health and fast growth. It’s also advisable to give your pigs a daily ration of rice, corn, soybeans, vegetables and cooked meat.
Please remember that piglets need more protein than mature pigs, due to intensive growth. You can also cook fresh food for your pig which is rich in protein, fats and oil, and vitamins too.
What Foods Should I Feed My Pigs For Faster Growth?
You want your pigs to grow fast and healthy? Then you need to feeds them with quality foods rich is protein vitamins and fats. Foods such as:
1. Foods Rich in Fats
Skim milk, yogurt, and dairy foods these foods can increase pig fat. Sweet foods with high sugar content donuts, candy, and cupcakes can also rapidly increase your pig’s weight.
2. Foods Rich In Protein
Feed your pigs with foods containing high protein content. You can combine soybean meal with a corn diet, this will provide your pig with well-balanced amino acid levels.
3. Feed Your Pigs With Less Fiber
Fiber takes more energy to digest, the pig will end up expending more calories when eating fiber. So it’s advised to ensure you feed your pigs with less fiber and more fats and proteinous food.
4. Increase Their Food Intake.
To ensure fast growth and healthy pigs, increase their food intake, feed your pigs well to their fullest satisfaction.
5. Ensure Your Pigs Can Easily Access Their Food.
If your pigs are finding it difficult to eat their food then they won’t be getting enough. This can lead to malnutrition and unhealthiness. Ensure you keep their food where all the pigs can easily access or reach it.
6. Add Supplements To Their Food.
You can choose to add fat or protein in order to help your pig add more pounds. Fat and protein supplements are available in many varieties. Ranging from 30-70%
This is very important. Ensure there is always availability of fresh water for the pigs. Pigs needs satisfactory amount of fresh and pure water each day.
Find your buyers by advertising your business, inform people about your pig farming business. Decide whether you’re going to sell live pigs or slaughtered. However, pig slaughter will also lead to more expenses. Therefore, i recommend new farmers to just sell live pigs.
Pigs are sold according to their sizes and weight.
A matured big male pig (boar) in Nigeria is between ₦50,000 – ₦60,000. While medium sized ones are from ₦20,000 to ₦25,000
A matured big female pig (sow) in Nigeria is between ₦20,000 – ₦50,000
You can take your pigs to the large market, if you’re pigs are healthy and fat, I’m very sure you’re definitely going to make a huge sales.
It’s advised to set up your pig farm near the market (if possible) to cut expenses of transporting your pigs to the market.
It’s quite difficult stating the total budget for starting your pig farming business in Nigeria, rather, it all depends on your budget. Your budget will decide how many piglets you will purchase and how many plots of land you would purchase for starting up the business.
You can start on a low scale by purchasing lesser number of piglets about 10-20 is ok. Pigs multiply rapidly so, in no distant time your pig farm will multiply. Ensure to purchase equal amount of male and female, and also make sure enough space is provided for them.
In Nigeria a piglets costs: ₦5,000 – ₦6,000
Constructing pigpens (pig house): A pig pen that can house 10-20 pigs can be constructed for about ₦80, 000.
Anytime you notice the pigs are manifesting symptoms of poor health (constant tiredness, not eating, stooling etc.) always consult a veterinary doctor to carry out accurate diagnosis and treatment of your pigs. However, they are some standard medications you need to administer to your pigs regularly.
For instance, at the piglet stage of their development, you must give them iron supplement to boost blood production within them. Piglets can grow faster than the rate their body produces blood to meet their blood requirement. This can lead to iron deficiency anemia in pigs. Iron supplements helps to prevent this from happening.
Have you been planning to start up a pig farming business? Then you’ve definitely choosen a very lucrative business.
Pig farming business in Nigeria is really a high profitable one. Which can yeild you lots of return within some months.
If you should follow the guide stated in this article you’ll definitely have no problem in your pig farm business.